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Excavations: Timna

Timna (or Tamna‘) was the capital of Qataban, one of the five kingdoms that included Ma’in, Saba, Himyar, and Hadhramaut in southern Arabia. According to the Roman author Pliny the Elder, who died in 79 CE, Timna was a bustling city with some sixty-five temples. For hundreds of years it maintained a monopoly on the cinnamon trade and levied taxes on caravans carrying incense. The city flourished as Qataban’s main commercial and religious center from the early seventh century BCE until the last quarter of the first century CE. Excavations conducted by AFSM suggest a major fire at Timna forced its inhabitants to abandon the city sometime in the first century CE. Commercial and religious activities apparently were transferred to nearby Hajar bin Humeid, where they continued for at least another century.

In 1950 and 1951, Wendell Phillips and his team succeeded in excavating several important sites at Timna. These include its South Gate, several private residences, a large structure that the team identified as a temple complex to Athtar (Venus), and the cemetery, locally known as Haid bin Aqil, just outside the city walls.


 Timna Cemetery  Statue of a seated woman  Head of a woman (“Miriam”)  Alexander Honeyman with “Miriam”  Necklace  Stele with the figure of a woman  Head of a Woman  Stele  Stele with head of a bull  Incense burner  Fragment of a frieze carved with ibex heads    Plaque with inscription and phiale  Pair of lions with riders  R.L. Shalkop  Finds in Timna cemetery

As renovation work continues in the Freer Gallery, the Sackler Gallery also will close on July 10, 2017. This museum-wide closure will allow us to completely reinstall our exhibitions and revitalize features to improve your visit. Both spaces will reopen on October 14, 2017, when we will welcome the public back to the Freer|Sackler: two galleries, one destination. For your safety, all visitors will have their bags checked. See the complete list of restricted items and bag sizes.