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Archival Note

Gold tablet with cuneiform. Negative nos. 310, 311. Ernst Herzfeld papers, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.

The squeezes were catalogued and described based on primary materials within the Ernst Herzfeld papers, notes and prior organization by Joseph Upton, and secondary sources listed in the Ernst Herzfeld and Squeeze Resource Bibliography. In addition to the Paper Squeeze series, the Drawings and Maps series and Records of Samarra Expedition series have been digitized and cataloged thanks to the generosity of the Leon Levy Foundation.

Freer|Sackler Archives has refrained from presenting the squeezes in a specific organization due to the ongoing scholarship regarding accurate placement. Instead, the squeezes are organized by archaeological site, language, and squeeze number. Click on their titles to access the catalog record. The records typically contain references and details from primary materials and scholarly sources, and may include previous suggestions made on squeeze inscription origin, content, and placement.

Please note:

  • The names used to identify archaeological sites and languages have various spellings. Our spellings have been determined within the museums or by other academic sources.
  • There are several squeezes in the Unidentified category, meaning that at this time the Archives have been unable to determine from which archaeological site the squeezes were made.
  • Archives staff are not experts in reading the ancient inscriptions captured by the squeezes. You may find some of the squeezes are inadvertently reversed, inversed, upside down, etcetera. We relied on local expertise and documentation within the Ernst Herzfeld papers to determine the orientation of each squeeze.

It is our hope that by posting the Ernst Herzfeld squeezes online we are contributing to scholarship and interest in archaeological sites of the ancient Near East. We welcome additional insight you may be able to add. Please contact the Archives if you can provide additional details, resources, or related materials.

Contact the Freer|Sackler Archives at AVRreference@si.edu or 202-633-0533.

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