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Washington Manuscript V - The Minor Prophets (Codex Washingtonensis)
mid-3rd century

Roman Period

Ink on papyrus
H: 29.5 W: 14.0 cm

Gift of Charles Lang Freer F1916.768

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This early papyrus codex is a complete Christian copy of the Greek text of the twelve Minor Prophets. A succession of people added Coptic glosses (clarifications or translations), perhaps adapting the codex to spread Christianity to people living outside the Hellenized cultural centers around the Nile. It was acquired in Egypt by American missionary David Askren, whose finds were purchased in 1916 by Charles Lang Freer in partnership with banker and financier J. P. Morgan, Jr.